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Only recently have African Americans begun to be restored to their rightful place at the center of the story, both as fugitives who liberated themselves by fleeing bondage, Sources are supplied for each of the following addresses so that you can judge their plausibility for yourself. strung across it would have interfered with the passage of other vessels. Norton's 1863 essay, History of the Black Rock Ferry, describes the progression of river-crossing methods from Buffalo to Canada. Fugitives rode the same ferry boats as everyone else.These books and articles can be found in various libraries. Preference has been given to first-person accounts and accounts dating from 50 years after the Civil War, which represents the average life span of a participant or eyewitness. According to the 1820 Federal Census, Niagara County had a total of 15 slaves. (Erie County was not separated off from Niagara County until 1821).Demand for Type A Underground Railroad hiding places exceeds the supply, which inevitably results in spurious attributions.Everyone longs to claim the moral high ground for a favorite old building.
The Stone Farmhouse was not built until 1830 at the earliest; probably closer to 1840 or 1850.Activities could include recruiting volunteers, raising money, and organizing rescues or protests.Structures associated with abolitionists or abolitionism in general, other than hosting fugitives or organizing activities on their behalf.The North was not free of racism then, just as it isn't now. This is a generous estimate; perhaps the reality is that only one in 200 or one in 500 Buffalo buildings dates from before the Civil War.
But what measure of freedom, opportunity, and dignity it did offer was still a big improvement over living in bondage. If we have demolished 99% of our pre-Civil War architecture, then sadly we must conclude that we have demolished 99% of our Underground Railroad sites. Modern claims about UGRR sites must be approached with skepticism.If you want to use a properly attributed quote or excerpt, be my guest.